2082

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Submission Number
2082
Participant
Australian Indigenous Governance Institute
Submission date
Main Submission Automated Transcript

SUBMISSION
AIGI R ESPONSE TO THE I NTERIM R EPORT TO THE A USTRALIAN
G OVERNMENT (O CTOBER 2020)

April 2021
CONTENTS
Introduction .............................................................................................. 4
Background ............................................................................................... 5
National Voice ........................................................................................... 7
Consultation by Parliament and Government ...................................... 7
Key Features of National Voice ........................................................... 14
Policy/Expert Input .............................................................................. 19
Local and Regional Voices ....................................................................... 23
Key Features ........................................................................................ 23
Relationship with National Voice ........................................................ 23
Local and Regional Voice Design and Consultation ............................ 24
Constitutional Recognition and Enshrinement ....................................... 27
Concluding Remarks ................................................................................ 30

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AIGI Repsonse to the Interim Report to the Australian Government

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS
The Australian Indigenous Governance Institute make the following recommendations:

Recommendation 1: The three-tier system of “obligation”, “expectation”, and “unencumbered” be
condensed into a two-tier system of “obligation” and “unencumbered”, where laws and policies that
are proposed to be classified as “expected” become obligatory.

Recommendation 2: Implementation of international obligations that relate to or have a significant
impact on the rights of Indigenous people should be a matter on which consultation with the Voice is
obligatory.

Recommendation 3: AIGI recommends that the Voice should be empowered to identify matters of
significant impact on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and that those matters be thereby
deemed as carrying the “obligation to consult”, including where Parliament and/or the Government
may have not categorised a matter as possessing that character.

Recommendation 4: AIGI posits that the transparency mechanisms proposed in the Interim Report
are appropriate and should be implemented, however, additional transparency and accountability
mechanisms are also recommended, including providing observer status in Parliament to the chair of
the National Voice, and requirement for production of annual reports by Parliament and Government
as to the consultation processes undertaken year to year.

Recommendation 5: AIGI recommends that distinct processes be created for parliamentary and
initial government consultation on laws to be passed through parliament, and executive government
development of policy, programs, and delegated legislation. Stage 2 should involve development of
fit-for-purpose processes, and transparency and accountability mechanisms, for consultation with
executive government.

Recommendation 6: AIGI recommends (notwithstanding Recommendation 15 regarding
Constitutional Enshrinement) that any proposed legislation to establish the Voice should guarantee
adequate funding, independence, and accountability and transparency through clear and robust
procedures.

Recommendation 7: AIGI recommends that the Voice be a private body corporate with statutory
functions.

Recommendation 8: AIGI recommends that membership of the National Voice be aligned with Local
and Regional Voice structures. AIGI recommends two representatives (one male, one female), be
appointed from each Local/Regional Voice region to the National Voice. These members should not
serve in a formal leadership role on the Local and Regional Voice, in order to keep roles clear. AIGI also

Page 2 of 31
AIGI Repsonse to the Interim Report to the Australian Government recommends that Ministers are not permitted to seek election to National or Local and Regional Voice
structures, to ensure independence of the structures.

Recommendation 9: In relation to the member support framework, AIGI recommends
consideration of the wealth of resources provided in the online Indigenous Governance Toolkit and the
insights provided by AIGI’s audit of Indigenous governance training, which was conducted in 2018. AIGI
also provides customised training for Indigenous organisations, communities and individuals which
focuses on Indigenous governance.

Recommendation 10: Members of the National and Regional/Local Voice structures should be
adequately paid for their time spent undertaking the duties attached to their roles.

Recommendation 11: AIGI recommends that a complementary independent Indigenous policy
body be set up as an independent Australian Government agency.

Recommendation 12: AIGI recommends that any evaluations undertaken of the Voice from time to
time be conducted by a separate, independent ethics council comprised of Indigenous Australians.

Recommendation 13: The number and geographical spread of Local and Regional Voices should be
determined following thorough consultation with communities. It is important to allow for Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander communities to work from a clean slate to determine how groups wish to
coalesce (and thus, where regional boundaries should be drawn) for the specific and unique purpose
of decision-making as Local and Regional Voices.

Recommendation 14: In most instances, the Local and Regional Voices should be new bodies
(rather than building off existing structures) that can determine internally their governance structures
and processes, including how they will consult with or form relationships with communities and
existing organisations and representative structures. This is to ensure there is no conflict in purpose or
duties between the roles of existing structures and the additional advisory functions imported through
acting as Local and Regional Voices.

Recommendation 15: The existence of the National Voice must be enshrined in the Constitution.

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AIGI Repsonse to the Interim Report to the Australian Government

SUBMISSION
AIGI R ESPONSE TO THE I NTERIM R EPORT TO THE A USTRALIAN
G OVERNMENT (O CTOBER 2020)

1. Introduction
1. The Australian Indigenous Governance Institute (AIGI) welcomes the opportunity to make a
written submission in response to the Commonwealth Government’s National Indigenous
Australian’s Agency Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian
Government (Interim Report).

2. AIGI is an independent, non-government, not-for-profit organisation that operates as a
national centre of governance excellence, connecting Indigenous Australians to world-class
governance practice, informing effective policy, providing accessible research, disseminating
stories that celebrate outstanding success and solutions, and delivering professional
development opportunities to meet the self-determined governance needs of Indigenous
people.

3. AIGI envisions a future Australia where Indigenous peoples, communities and nations can
pursue and exercise their right to self-determination and economic development through
strong self–governance.

4. Whilst this submission represents the views of AIGI, we recognise that Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander peoples, communities and traditional owner groups are best placed to speak
about their unique experiences, circumstances and ambitions. We also acknowledge and value
the diversity of voices amongst Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

5. Daryle Rigney, AIGI board member, is a member of the Voice Senior Advisory Group (SAG)
and states that he has not contributed to this submission. The views expressed in this
submission represent the views of AIGI only, and do not represent, or contain his own, or any
personal views.

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AIGI Repsonse to the Interim Report to the Australian Government

Background
6. Having effective and legitimate governance benefits families, communities and nations. It is a
powerful predictor of success in economic and community development and in maximising
self-determination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

7. AIGI is passionate about working alongside Indigenous nations to develop their communities,
restore economic prosperity, improve the daily lives of their families, inspire the leadership of
youth, and bring a renewed sense of cultural integrity and well-being to their people. We call
this approach to governance: ‘nation building’.

8. AIGI’s submission is informed by our extensive work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
organisations, communities and individuals in the space of Indigenous governance, as well as
several sources of robust national research:

(a) AIGI builds upon the unique national baseline of research data produced by the
Indigenous Community Governance (ICG) Project which investigated Indigenous
cultural modes of governance in rural, remote and urban communities and
organisations across Australia. 1
(b) AIGI is co-convenor with Reconciliation Australia (RA) of the biennial Indigenous
Governance Awards (IGAs). The IGAs acknowledge and celebrate outstanding stories
of success and best practice in the field of Indigenous governance throughout
Australia. Since 2014, AIGI has published the Stories of Success report, which presents
analyses of IGAs finalists’ governance practices, models and innovative solutions. The
multi-year analyses identify key research findings, as well as overarching narratives of
Indigenous governance, determinants of success and emerging trends.
(c) In 2018 AIGI undertook the first Australian audit of training and education programs
available for Indigenous people on governance, identifying the almost complete
absence of customised recurrent courses that integrate cultural and corporate
governance. 2
(d) AIGI maintains Australia’s only online Indigenous Governance Toolkit of case-study
information and resources for Indigenous governance building initiatives. 3

1 http://caepr.cass.anu.edu.au/indigenous-community-governance-project-ov…
2 https://www.aigi.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Preliminary-Report-i…-
and-Training-in-Australia.pdf
3 http://toolkit.aigi.com.au/

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AIGI Repsonse to the Interim Report to the Australian Government

(e) AIGI convenes Masterclasses focusing on different Indigenous governance topics and
emerging themes. 4AIGI also convenes tailored facilitated training workshops and
programs with Indigenous organisations and communities.
(f) AIGI has hosted the international Indigenous network ‘Common Roots, Common
Futures’ which promotes identification and dissemination of Indigenous governance
best-practice in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA. AIGI is one of the key
drivers and stakeholders that lead this network within Australia.
(g) AIGI has commenced a two-year research partnership with the Centre for Aboriginal
Economic Policy Research (CAEPR) at the Australian National University (ANU) to
undertake a world-class applied research project on The Indigenous Governance of
Development, which will involve collaboration with Indigenous Research Partners to
examine their collective governance.
(h) In December 2020, AIGI convened the inaugural International Indigenous Governance
Conference, a virtual two-day international conference which brought together
Indigenous leaders, innovators, and leading researchers in the field of Indigenous
governance from Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States, to have
conversations about what ‘self-determination through self-governance’ means for First
Nations peoples across the world.
(i) AIGI also undertakes fee-for-service engagements, including undertaking reviews of
cultural and corporate governance, facilitation and workshop delivery, and tailored
training and development.

4 AIGI Website: https://www.aigi.com.au/masterclass/.

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AIGI Repsonse to the Interim Report to the Australian Government

National Voice

Consultation by Parliament and Government

Scope of consultation requirements

Recommendation 1: The three-tier system of “obligation”, “expectation”, and
“unencumbered” be condensed into a two-tier system of “obligation” and
“unencumbered”, where laws and policies that are proposed to be classified as
“expected” become obligatory.

9. The Interim Report proposes a model in which both the Parliament and the Australian
government are obliged to consult with the National Voice on a narrow range of law and policy
matters, are expected to consult on a broader range of matters of significance to Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and there is unencumbered scope for the National Voice to
request advice or provide consultation on law and policy that will affect Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander peoples. In this Submission, this proposed model as outlined in the Interim
Report is referred to as the “three tiers of consultation” or the “three-tiered framework”.

10. AIGI submits that the three-tiered framework be condensed into a two-tiered system of
“obligation” and “unencumbered”, where laws and policies that are proposed to be classified
as “expected” become obligatory, for the following reasons:

(a) The Interim Report proposes that the “expected” tier would apply to “areas of
significant impact on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples”. 5 The fundamental
purpose and legitimacy of the Voice will be undermined if the government is not
obliged to consult on matters of significant impact to Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander peoples. This is particularly the case in circumstances where the Interim Voice
Report proposed that the obligation to consult would be non-justiciable and have no
effect on the validity of any proposed laws.

(b) There is limited justification for making a distinction between the obligatory and
expected categories. The justification given in the Interim Report for having a more
narrow “obligation” tier is to allow the obligation to be “clear and well defined” and to
“ensure there is no unreasonable impost on parliamentary and Australian Government
processes”. 6

5 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), page 51.
6 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), page 52.

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AIGI Repsonse to the Interim Report to the Australian Government

(c) AIGI does not foresee that expanding the obligation to consult would create
“unreasonable impost on parliamentary and Australian government processes” where
the obligation would be expanding to include matters of significant impact on
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Under s 17 of the Legislation Act 2003
(Cth), the government is already required by law to engage in consultation that is
appropriate and reasonably practicable.

(d) In regard to clarity of obligation, the merging of the “expected” category into the
“obligation” tier would increase clarity as it would remove confusion around the level
of obligation imputed by an “expectation” and would simplify reporting and
monitoring processes.

(e) Furthermore, increased levels of consultation and participation by Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander peoples in Parliament and government processes should
properly be considered a positive outcome in terms of ensuring that genuine
consultation and participation is occurring, rather than as an administrative burden. 7
Finally, the Interim Report proposes that the Voice will be empowered to decline the
opportunity to be consulted with if it sees fit.

(f) AIGI also recommends that there be an obligation to consult on legislation and policies
regarding Australia’s international obligations that relate to or have a significant
impact on the rights of Indigenous people. This recommendation is addressed
separately below.

Recommendation 2: Implementation of international obligations that relate
to or have a significant impact on the rights of Indigenous people should be a
matter on which consultation with the Voice is obligatory.

11. The Interim Report proposes that the Voice may play a future role in international fora, and
that it should play a role consistent with that of Indigenous representative structures in other
countries. AIGI supports this proposition and recognises that this role can be explored further
in Stage 2.

12. The Interim Report states that it would be expected that the Voice would be consulted on
legislation and policies regarding Australia’s international obligations as they affect Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander peoples. 8

7 In this regard, AIGI points to the rights enshrined in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
(UNDRIP) as guiding principles.
8 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), page 47.

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AIGI Repsonse to the Interim Report to the Australian Government

13. AIGI supports this role, however, AIGI submits that consultation on these international
obligations that relate to or have a significant impact on the rights of Indigenous people should
be a matter on which consultation is obligatory.

14. The reasons for this position are as follows:

(a) The Voice is proposed to be the formal mechanism by which Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander peoples can have input into Australia’s international obligations. It is in
the interest of all Australians, in advancing true reconciliation and equal political
participation, to facilitate engagement by the Voice in international fora, and equally,
engagement in how international obligations and instruments should be ratified and
implemented domestically.

(b) Indigenous Australians should be empowered to invoke, and advocate for, their rights
enshrined in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,
including the rights to self-determination, self-governance and free, prior and
informed consent.

(c) AIGI notes the United Nations Human Rights Councils’ 2017 Report of the Special
Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples on her visit to Australia, which
highlights that Australia rates poorly in terms of its current enablement of
participation, engagement and elevation of Indigenous voices. In that report, the
Special Rapporteur Victoria Tauli-Corpuz stated: 9

While Australia has adopted numerous policies aiming to address the socioeconomic
disadvantage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, the failure to respect
their rights to self-determination and to full and effective participation is alarming.
(emphasis added)

…the Special Rapporteur observes that the policies of the Government do not duly
respect the rights to self-determination and effective participation; contribute to the
failure to deliver on the targets in the areas of health, education and employment; and
fuel the escalating and critical incarceration and child removal rates of Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islanders. A comprehensive revision of those policies needs to be a
national priority, and the consequences and prevalence of intergenerational trauma
and racism must be acknowledged and addressed. 10

(d) The Special Rapporteur made a number of recommendations [at 107] regarding
Australia’s institutional and legal frameworks, which relate to ratifying various
international obligations into Australian domestic law and partnering with Indigenous

9 At paragraph [36].
10 At paragraph [106].

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AIGI Repsonse to the Interim Report to the Australian Government

peoples to develop strategies to give effect to various international instruments. The
engagement of the Voice in actioning the Special Rapporteur’s recommendations
should be obligatory.

Recommendation 3: AIGI recommends that the Voice should be empowered
to identify matters of significant impact on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
people and that those matters be thereby deemed as carrying the “obligation
to consult”, including where Parliament and/or the Government may have not
categorised a matter as possessing that character.

15. Whilst the Interim Voice Report indicates a number of options for determining whether a
proposed law or policy particularly affects Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 11, no
detail has been provided at this stage as to how legislation and policy will be categorised into
the proposed tiers and by whom.

16. Notwithstanding the options currently presented, AIGI recommends that the Voice should be
empowered to identify matters of significant impact on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
people, including where Parliament and/or the Government have not categorised a matter as
possessing that character. Where so identified, AIGI recommends that the matter be deemed
as attracting the “obligation to consult”, for the following reasons:

(a) The Interim Voice Report proposes that the Voice would have a “two-way interaction”
with the Parliament and Australian Government. 12 Whilst the details of how this two-
way interaction would operate is not spelled out in the Report, AIGI submits that this
recommendation would be consistent (in principle) with the “two-way” relationship
proposed. 13

(b) This process should still require the government to identify the laws that impact
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people rather than the Voice identifying these in
first instance, such that the preliminary burden is on the government and the
consultation process can occur early in the legislative process. It is noted that it is
already incumbent on Parliament to engage in consultation that is appropriate and
reasonably practicable. 14

(c) Indigenous Australians are acutely aware of what pressures, drivers and circumstances
impact their communities, and the Voice should be trusted to raise to the attention of
Parliament and government legislation and/or policy matters that can or will affect

11 As outlined at page 53.
12 Page 32
13 In this regard, AIGI points to the rights enshrined in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
(UNDRIP) as guiding principles.
14 See Recommendation 1 above.

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AIGI Repsonse to the Interim Report to the Australian Government

their communities. Ultimately, this is consistent with the intended purpose of the
Voice, the principle of self-determination and the capacity of the Voice to have the
opportunity to “engage more generally on a broader range of matters that significantly
affect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples”. 15

(d) While a wider scope does have the potential to increase the burden on the Voice as
identified in the Interim Report, the Interim Report proposes that the Voice can
determine whether or not to provide input on a particular matter. However, it is
important that the scope of consultation able to be provided by the Voice is not pre-
determined, or limited, by funding or resourcing considerations. A more active,
engaged and effective Voice will result in better government spending through
increased efficacy of laws and policy, which will be advantageous in the long term in
terms of resourcing.

(e) The elements of non-justiciability and no veto power amplify the need for increased
scope of obligation.

Transparency and accountability mechanisms for consultation requirements

Recommendation 4: AIGI posits that the transparency mechanisms proposed in
the Interim Report are appropriate and should be implemented, however,
additional transparency and accountability mechanisms are also
recommended, including providing observer status in Parliament to the chair of
the National Voice, and requirement for production of annual reports by
Parliament and Government as to the consultation processes undertaken year
to year.

17. The Interim Report aptly recognises that the effectiveness of the Voice will require both a
respectful and productive partnership with the Parliament and Australian Government, as well
as formalised transparency mechanisms. 16

18. The transparency mechanisms proposed in the Interim Report are appropriate and effective,
however, additional transparency and accountability mechanisms are recommended. AIGI
supports the suggestions presented in the submission of Harry Hobbs (Submission #30),
including:

(a) Providing observer status in Parliament to the chair of the National Voice;

15 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), page 32.
16 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), pages 53-54.

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AIGI Repsonse to the Interim Report to the Australian Government

(b) Production of annual reports as to the consultation processes undertaken year to year.

19. However, AIGI submits that the production of annual reports should apply not just to the
actions of Parliament, but also the Australian Government.

20. In the absence of constitutional enshrinement, and, having regard to the non-justiciability of
decisions to consult and no right of veto, it is even more critical to ensure that there are formal
mechanisms to ensure ‘obligations and expectations’ are met.

21. Ensuring that the process is not burdensome was one of the justifications given for the current
mechanisms proposed. 17 As noted above, 18 the Parliament is already required to and equipped
to undertake consultation on laws, and the burden of annual reporting is minor in comparison
to the value of increased transparency given the lack of any legally enforceable or reviewable
obligation.

22. Basing the transparency obligations on mechanisms that already exist was another justification
given for the current mechanisms. 19 The additional mechanisms proposed above are also
based on existing examples nationally and internationally, as helpfully outlined in the
submission of Harry Hobbs.

Separation of parliamentary and executive government consultation

Recommendation 5: AIGI recommends that distinct processes be created for
parliamentary and initial government consultation on laws to be passed
through parliament, and executive government development of policy,
programs, and delegated legislation. Stage 2 should involve development of fit-
for-purpose processes, and transparency and accountability mechanisms, for
consultation with executive government.

23. It is not entirely apparent how the consultation processes and three-tiered framework
proposed in the Interim Voice Report will be applied to subsidiary policy that is developed by
government departments subsequent to the passing of legislation.

24. The clarity and workability of the process for consultation between the Voice, the Parliament
and all levels of Government will be key to the success of the Voice in genuinely impacting law
and policy. To achieve this clarity and workability, separate, distinct and clear procedures for
consultation by the parliament and cabinet for laws, and consultation by the executive
government for policy and subsidiary legislation, should be developed and provided as part of

17 Ibid, page 54.
18 Ibid.
19 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), page 54.

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future consultation processes for consideration. The below comments regarding
parliamentary consultation and executive government consultation adopt this separation.

25. The reasoning for separation of processes is as follows:

(a) Much public policy development and implementation and program development and
implementation is performed by executive government departments and government
agencies. It is not clear to what extent the proposed processes and scope of obligation
outlined in the Interim Report are applicable to this context.

(b) AIGI submits that consultation on government policy is critical, as government policy
implementation can, and has historically, had a significant impact on Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander communities.

(c) The implementation of policies and laws occurs through a combination of departments
led by ministers, and agencies led by public servants. Often, multiple departments are
relevant to an agency.

(d) Different processes are required to be fit for purpose, particularly in relation to
transparency and accountability mechanisms. For example, statements on bills, and
legislative requirements to consult prior to the passage of a legislative bill, are not
applicable to the implementation of laws already in force, or the implementation of
programs and policies that, while underpinned by legislation, have a fairly broad
discretion within the executive to implement and evaluate.

(e) The Interim Report expressly discusses only a limited range of government executive
(as distinct from legislature) activities that the National Voice would consult on. These
include consulting with Ministers on broad policy positions; and in the early stages of
developing a proposed law. Government agencies are also mentioned in the Interim
Report, but very limited information is provided on what form or process this
consultation would involve. Whilst these are appropriate areas for the Voice to consult
on, AIGI submits that more information is needed to determine whether the proposed
consultation processes with the executive arm are likely to be adequate.

(f) In relation to Local and Regional Voices, the Interim Report proposes that Advice would
be provided to local, state, territory and federal governments on areas relevant to their
responsibilities and aim to cover the interests of all resident Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander people.

(g) Accordingly, AIGI submits that Stage 2 of the process should involve development of
fit-for-purpose processes, and transparency and accountability mechanisms, for
consultation with executive government. AIGI recommends that the following be
considered as part of that design process:

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AIGI Repsonse to the Interim Report to the Australian Government

(i) Seek to provide more clarity in Stage 2 on how the Voice will engage with the
executive and its decision-making.

(ii) A similar two-tiered system of “obligation” and “unencumbered”, as advanced
earlier in this Submission, could be adopted.

(iii) For those matters that fall within the obligation tier, introduce the
requirement for meetings between departments and the Voice to discuss
programs requiring implementation.

(iv) Consider how the National and Local and Regional Voice structures will
coordinate, interact or co-exist with pre-existing committees or advisory
groups.

(v) Consider requirement for annual reporting as discussed in Recommendation 4
above.

Key Features of National Voice

Protection in legislation

Recommendation 6: AIGI recommends that any proposed legislation to
establish the Voice should guarantee adequate funding, independence, and
accountability and transparency through clear and robust procedures.

26. Whether or not the Voice is constitutionally enshrined (which is discussed at Recommendation
15), AIGI notes and supports (at the minimum) the proposal for the Voice’s role to be set out
in legislation. There needs to be a base level of procedure codified in legislation to ensure
genuine consultation is underpinned by legislative obligations.

27. AIGI endorses the important elements highlighted in the From the Heart (#19) submission:

In practice, independence for the National Voice means operating:
o Freely from actual or perceived risks of being abolished by a government;
o In a self-determined way;
o With sufficient and secure long-term operational funding; and
o With its own policy and legal advice. 20

20 At page 9.

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28. AIGI also endorses the considerations raised in the ANTAR Submission (#1526) in relation to
agency and authority. 21

29. If the Voice is not developed and implemented in a manner which stays true to the
fundamental purpose it is meant to achieve, and fundamentally in line with the aspirations of
its Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander constituents, there is a risk that the legitimacy of the
structures will be undermined. For example, long delays or obstacles in developing systems for
Regional Voice mechanisms or providing insufficient funding and resourcing support for the
Voice to allow it to effectively perform its role, may have deleterious effects. Accordingly, it is
critical that the Voice is given the best chance for success through adequate funding,
independence and well-developed procedure.

30. Considerations in this regard include:

(a) A successful Voice to Parliament must have independence from government and have
the ability to critique government actions and policies when necessitated.

(b) AIGI notes and echoes the concerns of the Senior Advisory Group, regarding funding,
and the risk that Indigenous Voice arrangements could have the potential to be
abolished in future. 22

(c) The legislation should impose a positive obligation on Treasury to guarantee minimum
funding requirements; ensuring that the costs associated with the Voice are factored
into the national budget.

(d) There needs to be funding not only for the Voice to run its own operations, but also to
allow for effective consultation including travel and face-to-face engagement costs.

(e) Government and Parliament will need to allow sufficient time for consultations to be
performed, based on the advice of the National and Local/Regional Voice structures.
Consultations are likely to be dependent on context and subject matter. In some
instances, it is likely that the National and Local/Regional Voices will need to consult
with communities or individuals across a wide geographical spread, or in relation to
complex issues that require time spent to provide background information to the
persons or groups being consulted with.

(f) There also needs to be capacity for the National Voice to meet with Local and Regional
Voices regularly.

21 See page 17.
22 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), pages 155-156

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Legal form of National Voice

Recommendation 7: AIGI recommends that the Voice be a private body
corporate with statutory functions.

31. As outlined above, in order to perform its role effectively, the Voice structures require a high
degree of independence. AIGI endorses the rationale provided on page 58 of the Interim
Report, namely, that the National Voice should be a fully separate structure, and not part of
any existing body; nor should its administrative functions be provided by an existing entity.

Membership of the National Voice

Recommendation 8: AIGI recommends that membership of the National Voice
be aligned with Local and Regional Voice structures. AIGI recommends two
representatives (one male, one female), be appointed from each Local/Regional
Voice region to the National Voice. These members should not serve in a formal
leadership role on the Local and Regional Voice, in order to keep roles clear.
AIGI also recommends that Ministers are not permitted to seek election to
National or Local and Regional Voice structures, to ensure independence of the
structures.

32. The Interim Report proposes 2 core model alternatives: selection of members by Local and
Regional Voices via a special meeting of local and regional representatives; or direct elections
in each state or territory. Under both proposals, the number of people is from 16 to 20
members, with approximately 2 members from each state or territory, with an equal gender
balance. These two proposals have pros and cons as noted in the Interim Report, however, in
AIGI’s view, both suffer from fundamental issues with regard to representativeness both
nationally and at a regional/community level.

33. AIGI proposes a different model, which would involve each Local and Regional Voices
nominating (via election or other mechanism, depending on the governance structure of the
Local and Regional Voice) two representatives (one male and one female) to the National
Voice. These members should not serve in a formal leadership role on the Local or Regional
Voice, in order to keep roles clear.

34. AIGI’s reasoning for this recommendation is as follows:

(a) Representative:

(i) The ability for each Local and Regional Voice to directly appoint a member to
the National Voice realises the structural link between National Voice and
Local and Regional Voices. By having direct control of the election of Local or
Regional Voice members to the National Voice, Local and Regional Voices are

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more likely to be genuinely represented and the National Voice more likely to
be considered by its constituents as a legitimate representative body.

(ii) This would lead to a larger membership of the National Voice, however
arguably, in AIGI’s view, this does not necessarily mean the structure would be
unworkable. There are numerous examples of Indigenous representative
bodies with larger memberships operating throughout Australia and
worldwide. 23 AIGI considers that the benefits of representativeness, equality,
connection to community, succession planning and stability outweigh the
difficulties associated with larger numbers of representatives. Furthermore,
with a clearer, specific advisory role of the National Voice, these issues are
likely to be ameliorated.

(b) Unheard and community voices:

(i) The ability for Local and Regional Voices to directly appoint one or two
representative members to the National Voice would better allow for
community leaders to occupy these positions. By having two state-wide
representatives appointed by a meeting of all the Local and Regional Voices in
the state, there is a risk that community leaders without an existing state-wide
presence would be excluded from these positions, leaving some Local and
Regional Voices without a genuine and legitimate representative on matters
of national importance.

(ii) We note that this concern has been raised in the From the Heart submission
(#19) 24, and is addressed in the alternative model presented in the Uphold &
Recognise Submission (#37). 25 We urge the Senior Advisory Group to ensure
that previously Unheard Voices are accounted for in the design of the Voice
membership.

(c) Place Based and Self-determined:

(i) The ability for Local and Regional Voices to directly appoint one or two
representative members to the National Voice is in line with the importance
of place-based governance and self-determination. While the National Voice
is a national body and consults on national issues, it must be accountable to
and representative of the communities it represents. Furthermore, the

23 Consider Land Councils established in New South Wales and the Northern Territory, such as the Central Land Council,
Northern Land Council and Tiwi Land Council.
24 At page 6.
25 See paper of Ian McGill titled ‘A way for the Commonwealth to hear the voices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
peoples – a model anchored in our Constitution’, annexed to Submission #37.

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logistical difficulties of several local and regional bodies coming together in
order to appoint two National Voice representatives for a State or Territory
are significant: large communities spread over one or multiple state borders,
the financial and physical difficulty of state-wide community gatherings, and
the calendar of existing obligations among communities and organisations
including Local and Regional Voice meetings and governance, community
organisation meetings, and land-rights based meetings, among others. A major
benefit of our proposed model is that the appointment of a Local and Regional
Voice representative to the National Voice can occur at individual Local and
Regional Voice meetings, alongside other governance matters that would
already have to occur, maximising the opportunity for local and regional
community members to participate.

(d) Succession and stability:

(i) Having two members– one male and one female – from each of the Local and
Regional voices as National Voice members will also assist in gender equity,
succession planning, stability, and skills development.

Other Membership Considerations

Recommendation 9: In relation to the member support framework proposed
in the Interim Report, AIGI recommends consideration of the wealth of
resources provided in the online Indigenous Governance Toolkit and the insights
provided by AIGI’s audit of Indigenous governance training, which was
conducted in 2018. AIGI also provides customised training for Indigenous
organisations, communities and individuals which focuses on Indigenous
governance.

35. AIGI maintains Australia’s only online Indigenous Governance Toolkit of case-study
information and resources for Indigenous governance building initiatives. 26 AIGI’s website also
houses a wealth of other resources specific to Indigenous governance.

36. In 2018, AIGI undertook the first Australian audit of training and education programs available
for Indigenous people on governance, identifying the almost complete absence of customised
recurrent courses that integrate cultural and corporate governance. 27 This report may assist in
identifying training considerations relevant to the Voice.

26 http://toolkit.aigi.com.au/
27 https://www.aigi.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Preliminary-Report-i…-
and-Training-in-Australia.pdf

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37. AIGI also provides customised training for Indigenous organisations, communities and
individuals focussing on Indigenous governance, which draws from up-to-date research,
national international case studies and practice evidence. 28

Recommendation 10: Members of the National and Regional/Local Voice
structures should be adequately paid for their time spent undertaking the
duties attached to their roles.

38. In the Interim Report, it is proposed that members of the National Voice would have a part-
time paid role. The role would include attending full meetings, doing committee work,
engaging with communities and developing policy.

39. If it becomes apparent that the work associated with membership of the Voice is larger than a
part-time role, adjustments should be made accordingly. Further, members located remotely
may need to spend additional time travelling to and from meetings, which should also be
accommodated.

40. AIGI submits that remuneration of members of Local and Regional Voices is also critical. Local
and Regional Voices, under this proposal, will be responsible for a broad mandate which feeds
into all levels of government, and engagement with the National Voice. Performing this duty
will be time intensive.

41. Indigenous Australians historically have been expected by government to do far too much
consultation and work with either no remuneration, or wholly inadequate levels of
remuneration. Ensuring full participation and creating a “turning-point” in the relationship
means appropriately valuing the time, perspectives, expertise and knowledge of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

Policy/Expert Input

Panel of Experts and Policy Agency

Recommendation 11: AIGI recommends that a complementary independent
Indigenous policy body be set up as an independent Australian Government
agency.

42. AIGI recommends that a complementary independent Indigenous policy body be set up as an
independent Australian Government agency, for the following reasons:

28 For more information, contact us through our website: https://www.aigi.com.au/contact-us/

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(a) Independence:

(i) AIGI notes the observation in the Interim Report that there are several
organisations that work in the space of Indigenous policy both generally and
in specialised areas. However, the purpose, capacity, angle and expertise of
other organisations and agencies may not always be aligned with that of the
Voice and are not independent from their own stakeholders.

(ii) The Interim Report emphasises the importance of clarity of purpose of the
Voice. This should extend to the policy body established to support the Voice.
The policy body for the Voice should be independent from other organisations,
and in particularly established government entities, so that it can perform its
functions in an independent and effective manner. The agency can consult
with existing organisations as it sees fit.

(b) Nationally representative:

(i) Existing agencies and organisations have diverse structures, funding
arrangements, areas of expertise, subject matter (e.g. health, education,
nation building, business), and can have different geographical focuses (e.g.
remote, regional, urban, state-based).

(a) The Voice is designed to advise government and parliament. This mandate is
best achieved via purpose-built policy support.
(b) AIGI recommends that policy support be provided to both the National Voice,
and Local and Regional Voice structures as required.

(c) Adequately resourced:

(i) The Interim Voice Report notes that the early engagement of the National
Voice in the development of laws and policies was described as critical for
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to achieve ‘better policies and
outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and a fairer
relationship with Government’ in the Referendum Council’s 2016 Discussion
Paper. 29

(ii) The Interim Report proposes that:

(A) There should be no restriction on the matters within the scope of the
advisory role on which a National Voice could advise.

29 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), page 45.

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(B) The National Voice would determine its own priorities and issues on
which to develop and provide formal advice.

In order to adequately support the broad scope to advise, developing an
independent policy body is therefore essential.

(iii) At the same time, the Interim Report suggests that members would be paid
part-time for their time spent performing their roles. There will be a need for
significant policy advice and expert input to adequately inform members,
especially given the limited time members will have at their disposal to
perform all of their duties.

(iv) AIGI notes that in the Interim Report, analysis was undertaken of previous
national advisory bodies. A common theme emerging from that analysis is that
previous bodies were responsible for large mandates, with insufficient
resourcing provided to execute same. In addition to the previous bodies
identified in the Report, there are several examples apparent from AIGI’s
research, of Indigenous organisations being under-resourced and thus unable
to conduct evaluative and policy work, or to proactively advocate for laws and
policies.

(d) Knowledge retention, sustainability and data sovereignty:

(i) Given the scope of the mandate proposed for the Voice, AIGI considers that
the procurement model would not be cost-efficient long-term. Additionally,
establishing a dedicated independent policy body will allow for policy research
and responses to be more streamlined, more proactive, and allow for
knowledge retention and development of expertise of the body and its staff
over time.

(ii) Data sovereignty principles are also relevant. The National Agreement on
Closing the Gap (2020) includes an agreement to facilitate Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander people having access to, and the capability to use, locally-
relevant data and information to set and monitor the implementation of
efforts to close the gap, their priorities and drive their own development. In
the same way, establishing an independent policy body will allow for the
Voice’s approach to be determined by the priorities of Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander people, not a government agenda, and according to Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander-specific research principles and data governance
considerations. 30

30 In this regard, AIGI also points to the rights enshrined in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous
Peoples (UNDRIP) as guiding principles.

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Ethics and governance oversight and evaluation

Recommendation 12: AIGI recommends that any evaluations undertaken of
the Voice from time to time be conducted by a separate, independent ethics
council comprised of Indigenous Australians.

43. The Interim Report presents two options in relation to evaluation processes: (a) a separate,
independent ethics council comprised of Indigenous Australians; or (b) an internal committee
or committees composed of National Voice members.

44. AIGI foresees potential conflict issues with (b) above. For the reasons already expounded in
relation to emphasising independence of structures, as well as transparency and
accountability, AIGI considers that an independent ethics council is the more appropriate
option.

45. Importantly, any evaluations undertaken must not lead to the disbanding of the Voice, as has
occurred with various previous representative structures. If the proposed Voice is to truly
represent a “turning point” in the relationship with Parliament and Government, Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander peoples need certainty that these structures cannot be unilaterally
dissolved.

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Local and Regional Voices
46. The Interim Report proposes that all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in a region,
including Traditional Owners and historical residents, will have the opportunity to be
consulted, and that Local and Regional voice design will be led by communities, including by
building on current structures. 31

47. AIGI supports and commends this approach in general, emphasising the importance of self-
determined and place-based governance. However, there are several specific elements of this
approach that would benefit from greater clarity, and some modifications to approach.

Key Features
48. The scope of proposed work to be undertaken by Local and Regional Voices is extensive, and
feeds into all levels of government. AIGI looks forward to seeing further detail in Phase 2 as to
how this can be operationalised in a manner that ensures those bodies retain independence
from government, are supported by appropriate policy expertise, and are adequately
resourced.

(a) Consistent with the principle of ‘Data and Evidence-based Decision Making’ 32, AIGI
recommends that Local and Regional Voice structures have access to services provided
by the independent policy body (see Recommendation 11).

(b) Local and Regional Voice members must also be adequately remunerated to undertake
the broad mandate proposed (see Recommendation 10).

Relationship with National Voice
49. Recommendation 8 above proposes that membership of the National Voice be aligned with
Local and Regional Voice structures. AIGI recommends two representatives (one male, one
female), be appointed from each Local/Regional Voice region to the National Voice. These
members should not serve in a formal leadership role on the Local and Regional Voice, in order
to keep roles clear. AIGI also recommends that Ministers are not permitted to seek election to
National or Local and Regional Voice structures, to ensure independence of the structures.

50. This proposal ensures a direct structural link between the National and Local/Regional Voice
structures, which allows for increased legitimacy and accountability in the relationship
between the different entities.

31 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), pages 35, 62, 68.
32 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), page 83.

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Local and Regional Voice Design and Consultation

Recommendation 14: The number and geographical spread of Local and
Regional Voices should be determined following thorough consultation with
communities. It is important to allow for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
communities to work from a clean slate to determine how groups wish to
coalesce (and thus, where regional boundaries should be drawn) for the specific
and unique purpose of decision-making as Local and Regional Voices.

51. The Local & Regional Co-design Group has proposed a range of between 25 and 35 regions
across Australia. The Interim Report states ‘this range takes into account the need for the
number of regions to be sustainable as well as reflective of existing cultural identities and
regional groupings’. The Report provides that the number will be finalised after Stage 2,
following which communities and governments in each state/territory will then work together
to determine the detail of regions in their jurisdiction, based on agreed parameters and
guidance. 33

52. It is important to allow for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities to work from a
clean slate to determine how groups wish to coalesce (and thus, where regional boundaries
should be drawn) for the specific and unique purpose of decision-making as Local and Regional
Voices. Prescribing a certain number of bodies without considering how Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander will wish to aggregate themselves for the purpose of Local and Regional Voices,
may result in creating Local and Regional Structures that do not appropriately align with local
context and cultural authority structures.

53. AIGI endorses the submission of Uphold and Recognise (#37) regarding the importance of
retaining clarity of purpose:

For the co-designed entities to succeed, they need absolutely clarity of purpose. If the purpose
and mission of these new entities is poorly defined, they risk scope creep and their ability to
create change on the ground will be limited. 34

54. Indigenous communities determine their decision-making according to context, including, who
has authority to make that specific decision, and how. 35 Decision-making in this context must
be informed by the clearly defined purpose and scope of the Voice structures.

33 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), pages 89-91.
34 Uphold and Recognise Submission #37, at pages 14-15.
35 The principle of subsidiarity has emerged from AIGI’s research, particularly the analysis of the governance practices of
applicants to the Indigenous Governance Awards (IGAs), as a principle which informs how Indigenous organisations and
communities select their decision-makers and hold them accountable. A high proportion (80%) of all applicants in the

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55. This will be a new process, and thus, should not be the subject of pre-existing considerations
or assumptions as to where geographical boundaries should be drawn, or how many regions
will exist across the country. These characteristics should be determined through thorough
consultation processes.

Recommendation 15: In most instances the Local and Regional Voices should
be new bodies (rather than building off existing structures) that can determine
internally their governance structures and processes, including how they will
consult with or form relationships with communities and existing organisations
and representative structures. This is to ensure there is no conflict in purpose
or duties between the roles of existing structures and the additional advisory
functions imported through acting as Local and Regional Voices.

56. The Interim Report provides that existing structures with similar purpose and functions are to
be used as the basis for a Local and Regional Voice, evolving as needed to align with the
principles. 36

57. AIGI acknowledges and recognises the existence of representative structures at local and
community levels throughout Australia, and that many of these organisations are
demonstrating exceptional governance. Some of these entities are strong, trusted institutions
that have been built up over many years.

58. These existing structures have been developed for various purposes and in various contexts,
and many are currently responsible for more than just an advisory role. The purpose, capacity,
scope and expertise of other organisations and agencies may not necessarily be aligned with
the defined purpose and scope of the proposed Voice structures. Existing bodies are not
independent from their own stakeholders and have pre-existing agendas they are pursuing.

59. Consistent with the need for independence and clarity of purpose of the Voice structures, AIGI
submits Local and Regional Voices should be independent from other organisations so that
they can perform their functions in an independent and effective manner. Perceived
independence and clarity of scope and purpose of the Local and Regional Voices will ensure
greater legitimacy amongst their constituents.

2016 IGAs round applied the principle of subsidiarity in decision-making processes by reserving decision-making power
for the people most affected by decisions: Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people, future leaders, family and/or
language groups, knowledge/lore holders, Indigenous women and youth, Elders and Traditional Owners. Decision-
making power is also reserved for people on the basis of their specific skills and experience, with the number of
positions varying according to the size and demography of the organisation, project or initiative. In this way, subsidiarity
informs the representation of different interest groups in the decision-making process, ensures decision-making
processes align with Indigenous cultural values, and supports the authority and legitimacy of decisions made.
36 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), page 79.

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60. This will be more efficient, transparent and ensure that conflicts or confusion do not arise
between the various roles that might need to be performed by existing structures. Funding
and reporting will also be more straightforward.

61. Further, what AIGI does not want to see, is use of existing structures as a cost-saving
mechanism – transferring additional responsibility and duties on to existing structures without
sufficient support and resourcing to perform those roles.

62. In any event, based on the current proposal, Local and Regional Voice structures will be
empowered to consult with any other pre-existing organisations, associations, communities
and individuals as they see fit.

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Constitutional Recognition and Enshrinement
63. It is noted that the Terms of Reference of the Senior Advisory Group did not include drafting
of legislation for a Voice, and making recommendations on matters of constitutional
recognition, Makarrata Commission, treaty and truth telling.

64. Further, this Submission notes the Interim Report’s intention 37, through its consultation and
engagement messaging, to separate out constitutional recognition from the discussion.

65. However, AIGI considers constitutional enshrinement as crucial to achieving the fundamental
goals and purpose of the Voice. This is highlighted in AIGI’s previous submission made in 2018
to the Joint Select Committee on Constitutional Recognition Relating to Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander Peoples (Submission #407).

66. Accordingly, AIGI’s Submission addresses this issue.

Recommendation 15: The existence of the National Voice must be enshrined
in the Constitution.

67. The Interim Voice Report provides an overview of the various representative body structures
that have been established since the 1950s. 38 Without the promise or guarantee of longevity,
sufficient time to develop their governance structures, and subject to the whims of changing
funding arrangements, each entity was not given the best chance for success.

68. If the government is truly committed to the aspirations outlined in the Interim Report, then
the requirement for constitutional enshrinement must be viewed as an indivisible element of
this discussion.

69. AIGI’s submission supports the submissions of From the Heart (#19), Uphold & Recognise
(#37), and Public Lawyers (#38), which outline the clear reasoning for constitutional
enshrinement now, not later:

(a) There now exists a substantive and long-standing body of work by generations of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, as well as non-Indigenous Australians
that have consistently called for constitutional recognition. However, in response to
these many reports, statements, panels, councils and committees, successive
Australian governments have failed to act.

37 At page 28.
38 Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Interim Report to the Australian Government (2020), Chapter 4.

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(b) Enshrining the Voice in the Constitution establishes its authority and legitimacy, which
is needed to properly fulfil its function.

(c) A purely legislative Voice is a Voice that is set up to fail. Parliament can override
legislation at any time. Without constitutional recognition, the government of the day
can, through funding cuts, disengagement, and dissolving entities - much as we have
seen with previous bodies – remove Voice structures.

(d) Further, the Voice structures need to be given sufficient time to develop their
governance processes. Governance is an evolutive process. Previous bodies have been
expected to “get it right” very fast, and when the Government decided they were not
on track, these structures were dissolved.

(e) Without constitutional enshrinement, there is a risk that the Voice won’t feel able to
speak freely and truthfully on issues that matter to them, for fear of retribution which
could lead to the dissolution of the Voice.

(f) The government should lead in this space, especially given that this Report indicates
that the Voice is intended to represent “a turning point” in the relationship. As
highlighted in AIGI’s 2018 Submission to the Joint Select Committee: 39

It is crucial that the Australian Government demonstrate commitment and leadership
in any process of Constitutional Recognition. One way in which this leadership needs
to be demonstrated includes working collegially with other major parties present in the
Australian Federal Parliament, the Australian media and building awareness and
support for Constitutional Recognition in the wider Australian public.

Acting in this way acknowledges that Constitutional Recognition is but one component
of a larger journey to better the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
and creating a more inclusive and complete expression of Australia.

(g) It is important to note that Australia continues to lag behind other developed nations
in the level of participation allowed by Indigenous peoples in national (and
international) governance structures. In 2017, the UN Special Rapporteur
recommended that the Australian Government: 40

Place full political weight behind and act on the proposals put forth by the Referendum
Council, including the establishment of a “First Nations Voice” in the Constitution and
of a commission for treaty negotiation and truth-telling. Such measures would carry

39 At pages 4-5.
40 At paragraph [107].

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momentous significance to resetting the relationship with the First Peoples of
Australia; (emphasis added)

(h) The clear sentiments expressed in the Statement from the Heart need to be given due
credence. If the government is committed to doing things with, not to, Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander people, and desires to truly provide a Voice to those people, then
it starts by listening to what has been clearly articulated in the Statement from the
Heart. There will only be a true “turning point” if the Voice is enshrined in the
Constitution. Otherwise, the Voice will be of the same nature and character as the
various other bodies that have been established, and later disbanded, since the 1950s.

(i) Recent polls indicate that a majority of Australians are in favour of the establishment
of a constitutionally enshrined Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Voice to
Parliament. 41

41 The Conversation. 2021. Most Australians support First Nations Voice to parliament: survey. [online] Available at:
<https://theconversation.com/most-australians-support-first-nations-voic…; [Accessed
16 April 2021]. See also: Reconciliation Australia, 2021. Australian Reconciliation Barometer 2020. [online] Available at:
<https://www.reconciliation.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/australian…-
report_web.pdf> [Accessed 16 April 2021].

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Concluding Remarks
70. The commencement of this Indigenous Voice Co-Design process is a positive step in the right
direction, however, as highlighted in this submission, AIGI still holds concerns regarding
whether the voices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are truly being heard and
accounted for in this process. The recommendations proposed in this submission are guided
towards ensuring that history does not repeat itself, and that this time, the process results in
a model that truly allows for full, equal, effective, and positive participation of Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander peoples in political and government processes.

71. Indigenous Australians have been denied a Voice for too long. We implore the Australian
Government to keep up momentum in developing the proposal for the Voice, including
through taking steps towards Constitutional recognition and enshrinement during the term of
this 46th Parliament. The Australian people are ready.

This submission was authored by Ms Jessica Ling (AIGI Executive Manager of Research and Advocacy)
with the assistance of Ms Katelyn Lamont (Aurora Intern, February 2021).

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